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What is PAPI?

PAPI stands for the Viet Nam Provincial Governance and Public Administration Performance Index (PAPI). PAPI is a policy monitoring tool that reflects citizen experiences with the performance of central to local governments in governance, public administration and public service delivery.

Box 1 below provides an introduction to PAPI.

Box 1 The Viet Nam Provincial Governance and Public Administration Performance Index (PAPI)
Aims: PAPI aims to generate information that can improve the performance of local governments in meeting their citizens’ needs by:

(i) enabling citizens to benchmark their local government’s performance and advocate for improvement; and

(ii) promoting self-reflections for improvement, creating constructive competition, and promoting learning among local authorities.

Approach: Citizens are at the heart of Viet Nam’s development. As “end users” of public administration and public services, they are fully capable of assessing the performance of central and local authorities and of supporting establishment of a state “of the people, by the people and for the people.”
Beneficiaries: ·         Vietnamese citizens

·         63 provincial governments (including Provincial Party Committees, People’s Committees, and People’s Councils) and their district and commune affiliates

·         Relevant central agencies (the Viet Nam Communist Party, the National Assembly, and the Government and its ministries)

·         The media, mass organisations, and civil society organisations

·         The research community in Viet Nam and abroad

·         The international community

What PAPI measures: Eight dimensions, 28 sub-dimensions, more than 120 indicators, and more than 550 substantive questions about Viet Nam’s policy matters covering:
1.       Participation at Local levels

2.       Transparency in Local Decision-making

3.       Vertical Accountability Towards Citizens

4.       Control of corruption in the public sector

5.       Public Administrative Procedures

6.       Public Service Delivery

7.       Environmental Governance

8.       E-Governance

Method:               Face-to-face interviews with citizens Duration: 45-60 minutes per interview on average
Sampling and approach: International state-of-the-art methodological standards with probability proportional to size (PPS), and random selection; real-time tablet-based interviews (since 2015)
Where: Across all 63 provinces and municipalities in Viet Nam since 2011, covering

·         207 districts (including 64 capital districts and PPS-sampled districts)

·         414 communes (including district-seated communes and PPS-sampled communes)

·         828 villages (including commune-seated villages and PPS-sampled villages)

Who: 117,363 citizens from all demographic backgrounds (since 2009)

·         2018: 14,304 (52.95% women)

·         2017: 14,097 (52.6% women)

·         2016: 14,063 (54.8% women)

·         2015: 13,955 (54.1% women)

·         2014: 13,552 (52.9% women)

·         2013: 13,892 (52.7% women)

·         2012: 13,747 (52.6% women)

·         2011: 13,642 (52.9% women)

·         2010: 5,568 (30 provinces; 47.5% women)

·         2009: 543 (3 provinces; 40.3% women)

Samples representative of all ethnicities in Viet Nam (since 2010)

·         2018: Kinh 84.54%; Non-Kinh 15.46%

·         2017: Kinh 83.5%; Non-Kinh 16.5%

·         2016: Kinh 83.7%; Non-Kinh 16.3%

·         2015: Kinh 83.9%; Non-Kinh 16.1%

·         2014: Kinh 83.9%; Non-Kinh 16.1%

·         2013: Kinh 84.6%; Non-Kinh 15.4%

·         2012: Kinh 84.4%; Non-Kinh 15.6%

·         2011: Kinh 84.5%; Non-Kinh 15.5%

·         2010: Kinh 85.0%; Non-Kinh 15.0%

Implementing partners: – United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

– Centre for Community Support and Development Studies (CECODES)

– Centre for Research and Training of the Viet Nam Fatherland Front (VFF-CRT)

– Real-Time Analytics (RTA)

– Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics (HCMA) (qualitative action research using PAPI)

Funding partners: – The Government of Spain (2009-2010)

– The Government of Switzerland (2011-2017)

– The Government of Australia (2018-2021)

– The Government of Ireland (2018-2021)

– United Nations Development Programme in Viet Nam (2009-2021)

Information gateway: Website: www.papi.org.vn

Twitter: @PAPI_Vietnam

Facebook: www.facebook.com/papivn

YouTube: www.youtube.com/user/PAPIVietNam

Who are behind PAPI?

PAPI is jointly conducted by the Center for Community Support and Development Studies (CECODES) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), with the close partnership and support of the Centre for Theory Work of the Viet Nam Fatherland Front from 2009-2010, the Front Review from 2010-2012, the Commission for People’s Petitions under the National Assembly Steering Committee in 2012, and the Centre for Research and Training of the Viet Nam Fatherland Front—VFF-CRT from 2013. The Real-Time Analytics has joined the PAPI Consortium since 2015 to provide technical platforms for PAPI data collection.

Since 2012, the Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics has played a critical role in disseminating PAPI findings to provincial leaders through action-based research and policy advice.

The project is supported by a high-profile National Advisory Board.

Who are members of the National Advisory Board?

Mr Jairo Acuna-Alfaro, Policy Advisor, Responsive and Accountable Institutions Team, Governance and Peacebuilding, Bureau for Policy and Programme Support, United Nations Development Programme in New York

Mr Justin Baguley, Counsellor in Economic and Development Cooperation, Embassy of Australia in Viet Nam

Mr Bùi Đặng Dũng, Vice Chairman, Committee on Finance and Budget, National Assembly, Member of the Kien Giang Provincial National Assembly Delegation

Mr Bùi Phương Đình, Director, Viet Nam Institute for Sociology and Development, Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics

Mdm. Cao Thị Hồng Vân, Vice President cum General Secretary, Viet Nam Association for Women Businesspersons

Mr Đinh Xuân Thảo, Former President, Institute of Legislative Studies, National Assembly Steering Committee

Mr Đỗ Duy Thường, Vice Chairman of the Advisory Board on Democracy and Law, Viet Nam Fatherland Front Central Committee

Mdm. Akiko Fujii, Deputy Resident Representative, United Nations Development Programme in Viet Nam

Mr Hồ Ngọc Hải, Vice-chairperson of the Advisory Council for Science, Education and Environment of the Advisory Board, Viet Nam Fatherland Front Central Committee

Ms Hoàng Vân Anh, Director of the Legal Department, Land Administration Agency of Viet Nam, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment

Mr Hoàng Xuân Hoà, Assistant to Deputy Prime Minister Vương Đình Huệ, Office of the Government

Mr Lê Văn Lân, Former Vice Commissioner, Central Commission of Internal Affairs

Mr Nguyễn Đình Cung, President of the Central Commission for Economic Management

Mr. Nguyễn Hữu Dũng, Standing Vice President, Viet Nam Fatherland Front Central Committee

Mr Nguyễn Sĩ Dũng, Vice President of Vietnam-Japan Friendship Association, Director of the Centre for Commercial Dispute Resolution in Viet Nam

Mdm. Nguyễn Thuý Anh, Former Division Head, Communist Party Magazine, Central Party Committee, Viet Nam Communist Party

Mr Nguyễn Văn Quyền, President of the Viet Nam Lawyers Association

Ms Elisa Cavacece, Deputy Head of Mission/Head of Development (Viet Nam, Lao PDR, Cambodia, Myanmar/Burma), Irish Aid, Embassy of Ireland

Mdm. Phạm Chi Lan, Senior Economist and former Vice President, Viet Nam Chamber of Commerce and Industry

Mr Phạm Duy Nghĩa, Director of the Masters in Public Policy Program, Fulbright University

Mr Phạm Văn Tân, Vice President and General Secretary, Viet Nam Union of Science and Technology

Mr Thang Văn Phúc, (Advisory Board lead), former Vice Minister of Home Affairs, President of the Viet Nam Institute of Development Studies

Ms. Trần Thị Quốc Khánh, Standing Member of the National Assembly’s Committee for Science, Technology and Environment

Note: The list is in alphabetical order by family name.

What is measured by PAPI?

PAPI examines provincial performance in governance and public administration from eight dimensions, including:

(i) Participation at Local Levels;
(ii) Transparency;
(iii) Vertical Accountability;
(iv) Control of Corruption in the Public Sector;
(v) Public Administrative Procedures; 
(vi) Public Service Delivery;
(vii) Environmental Governance; and,
(viii) E-Governance

Since 2018, PAPI includes 8 dimensions, 28 sub-dimensions and more than 120 indicators. Previously, from 2009 to 2017, PAPI included 6 dimensions, 22 sub-dimensions and more than 90 indicators.

For more information, please visit the Report Library that presents PAPI reports from 2011-2018 at page Báo cáo và Dữ liệu PAPI.


How were the 30 provinces selected in PAPI 2010?

Covering roughly half the province’s number of the country, the 2010 study offered a rare opportunity to observe the effect of transparency brought by the index and its efficiency as a tool for policy making, by comparing the results of the participating provinces (the treatment group) to the provinces which don’t (the control group). The method Propensity Score Matching was deployed to establish these two groups, identifying for each province in the treatment group a twin province in the control group, which is similar to it in factors with potential influence on governance and public administration, such as wealth, population size, urbanization, structure of the economy, etc. (For more detailed information see Chapter 3 of the Report on the Documents and Data page)

How are respondents selected in PAPI?

PAPI classifies provinces of Vietnam into three groups: large (Ha Noi and Ho Chi Minh City) with population over 5 millions, medium (Thanh Hoa, Nghe An, An Giang and Tien Giang) with population between 2 and 5 millions, and small (57 remaining provinces) with population under 2 millions.

To ensure comparability across all provinces, the capital district of each province is forced into the selection. Additionally, two other districts (5 in medium and large provinces) were selected based on the PPS method (proportion to measures of size). In turn, in each of these selected districts, the commune being district’s administrative seat was purposely included in the sample, along with another commune selected using PPS.

At the village level, the village being commune’s seat was purposely selected, together with another village identified using PPS. This sampling design ensured a full range of possible geographical and socio-economic situations, from dense urban residential areas in the proximity of provincial institutions to remote villages. Thank to the use of PPS, units with significantly different sizes had the same probability of being included into the sample.

In each of the identified villages, 20 citizens of age between 18 and 70, with another 10 for replacement (30 and 15 respectively for large provinces) were randomly selected with the target to reach a quota of 16 respondents (24 for large provinces). Again, random selection ensured that each person in the given age bracket had the same probability of being selected into the survey.

(For more detailed information see PAPI reports)

Is the sample representative?

Comparison of the distribution of key demographic variables between PAPI sample (after applying the post-stratification weights) and available data from the 2009 Census shows with reasonable confidence that the survey is representative of the underlying population and that design effects are small enough to all meaningful comparisons across groups and provinces.

(For more detailed information see Appendices of each PAPI Reports)

What are the commonalities and differences between PAPI and PCI?

The following table provides a comparative perspective that highlights the similarities in terms of methodology and differences in terms of underlined population between PAPI and the Provincial Competitiveness Index.

Provincial Governance and Public Administration Performance Index Provincial Competitiveness Index
Objective PAPI and PCI both assess provincial governments based on their performance in terms of governance and public administration to facilitate healthy competition among provinces
Respondents ·         About 14,000 citizens every year ·         About 10,000 businesses every year
Form of survey ·         Field-trip surveys, face-to-face interviews ·         Mail-out surveys and phone surveys
Scope of survey ·         63 provinces annually since 2011 ·         63 provinces annually since 2006
Implementing Agencies ·         Centre for Community Support Development Studies (CECODES)

·         Viet Nam Fatherland Front (VFF)

·         United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

·         Real-Time Analytics (RTA)

·         Viet Nam Chamber of Commerce and Industry (VCCI)

·         United States Agency for International Development (USAID)

Construction of the Composite Index ·         Similar general methodology of sub-national indexing, facilitating comparisons between the relative priorities of governance for Vietnamese citizens and businesses

·         Similar index construction and scaling

·         Three steps in index construction: Collection, Construction and Calibration

·         Survey data only ·         Combines survey with hard-data
·         8 Dimensions

·         28 Sub-Dimensions

·         More than 120 Indicators

·         10 sub-indices

·         128 indicators

Dimensions 1.      Participation at Local Levels

2.      Transparency in Local Decision-making

3.      Vertical Accountability

4.      Control of Corruption in the Public Sector

5.      Public Administrative Procedures

6.      Public Service Delivery

7.      Environmental Governance (from 2018)

8.      E-Governance (from 2018)

1. Entry Costs

2. Land Access and Tenure Security

3. Transparency

4. Time Costs of Regulatory Compliance

5. Informal Charges

6. Policy Bias

7. Proactive Leadership

8. Business Support Service

9. Labour training

10. Law & Order

* Infrastructure (not included in the PCI index)

How can I access PAPI results?

Browse Library for standards reports, presentations and papers related to PAPI.

Create customised reports for individual provinces and by measures by using INDEX or clicking Index Generator.

How can I get access to the core dataset?

The key aggregate data at the dimension and sub-dimension levels can be downloaded in MS Excel and CSV formats, under Documents and Data.

The full dataset is available in STATA format upon request and with terms and conditions. We are interested in the promotion and development of external research and approach using PAPI data. In exchange, we would like to have the choice to re-post analytical papers on our website under the section Documents and Data.

For access to raw data, please contact UNDP Viet Nam at registry.vn[@]undp.org.