What is PAPI?

PAPI stands for the Viet Nam Provincial Governance and Public Administration Performance Index (PAPI). PAPI is a policy monitoring tool that reflects citizen experiences with the performance of central to local governments in governance, public administration and public service delivery.

Box 1 below provides an introduction to PAPI.

Box 1 The Viet Nam Provincial Governance and Public Administration Performance Index (PAPI)
Aims: PAPI aims to generate information that can improve the performance of local governments in meeting their citizens’ needs by:(i) enabling citizens to benchmark their local government’s performance and advocate for improvement; and

(ii) promoting self-reflections for improvement, creating constructive competition, and promoting learning among local authorities.

Approach: Citizens are at the heart of Viet Nam’s development. As “end users” of public administration and public services, they are fully capable of assessing the performance of central and local authorities and of supporting establishment of a state “of the people, by the people and for the people.”
Beneficiaries:
  • Vietnamese citizens
  • 63 provincial governments (including Provincial Party Committees, People’s Committees, and People’s Councils) and their district and commune affiliates
  • Relevant central agencies (the Viet Nam Communist Party, the National Assembly, and the Government and its ministries)
  • The media, mass organisations, and civil society organisations
  • The research community in Viet Nam and abroad
  • The international community
What PAPI measures: Eight dimensions, 28 sub-dimensions, more than 120 indicators, and more than 550 substantive questions about Viet Nam’s policy matters covering:

1. Participation at Local levels

2. Transparency in Local Decision-making

3. Vertical Accountability Towards Citizens

4. Control of corruption in the public sector

5. Public Administrative Procedures

6. Public Service Delivery

7.  Environmental Governance

8.  E-Governance

Method:               Face-to-face interviews with citizens Duration: 45-60 minutes per interview on average
Sampling and approach: International state-of-the-art methodological standards with probability proportional to size (PPS), and random selection; real-time tablet-based interviews (since 2015)
Where: Across all 63 provinces and municipalities in Viet Nam since 2011, covering
  • 207 districts (including 64 capital districts and PPS-sampled districts)
  • 414 communes (including district-seated communes and PPS-sampled communes)
  • 828 villages (including commune-seated villages and PPS-sampled villages)
Who: 131,501 citizens from all demographic backgrounds (since 2009)
  • 2019: 14,138 (52.5% women)
  • 2018: 14,304 (52.95% women)
  • 2017: 14,097 (52.6% women)
  • 2016: 14,063 (54.8% women)
  • 2015: 13,955 (54.1% women)
  • 2014: 13,552 (52.9% women)
  • 2013: 13,892 (52.7% women)
  • 2012: 13,747 (52.6% women)
  • 2011: 13,642 (52.9% women)
  • 2010: 5,568 (30 provinces; 47.5% women)
  • 2009: 543 (3 provinces; 40.3% women)
Samples representative of all ethnicities in Viet Nam (since 2010)
  • 2019: Kinh 84%; Non-Kinh 16%
  • 2018: Kinh 84.54%; Non-Kinh 15.46%
  • 2017: Kinh 83.5%; Non-Kinh 16.5%
  • 2016: Kinh 83.7%; Non-Kinh 16.3%
  • 2015: Kinh 83.9%; Non-Kinh 16.1%
  • 2014: Kinh 83.9%; Non-Kinh 16.1%
  • 2013: Kinh 84.6%; Non-Kinh 15.4%
  • 2012: Kinh 84.4%; Non-Kinh 15.6%
  • 2011: Kinh 84.5%; Non-Kinh 15.5%
  • 2010: Kinh 85.0%; Non-Kinh 15.0%
Implementing partners:
  • United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
  • Centre for Community Support and Development Studies (CECODES)
  • Centre for Research and Training of the Viet Nam Fatherland Front (VFF-CRT)
  • Real-Time Analytics (RTA)
  • Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics (HCMA) (qualitative action research using PAPI)
Funding partners:
  • The Government of Spain (2009-2010)– The Government of Switzerland (2011-2017)
  • The Government of Australia (2018-2021)
  • The Government of Ireland (2018-2021)
  • United Nations Development Programme in Viet Nam (2009-2021)
Information gateway: Website: www.papi.org.vn Twitter: @PAPI_Vietnam Facebook: www.facebook.com/papivn YouTube: www.youtube.com/user/PAPIVietNam