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  • 11/04/2017

    Media Release: Official Launch of the 2016 PAPI Report

    Citizens are satisfied with health insurance but concerned about the environment: 2016 PAPI Report




    Ha Noi, 4 April 2017 – Findings from the 2016 PAPI Report, released today, show positive trends in public service delivery, particularly in the number of citizens receiving public health insurance and in the reported quality of primary schools. However, citizens are more concerned about the environment than in past years, and weaknesses remain in citizen engagement in decision-making, government accountability, and control of corruption in the public sector.

    Over 14,000 citizens randomly selected from all 63 provinces were interviewed for the 2016 Provincial Governance and Public Administration Performance Index (PAPI), which assesses citizen experiences with national and local government performance in governance, public administration and public service delivery.

    Speaking at the launch of the report, Kamal Malhotra, UN Resident Coordinator and UNDP Resident Representative in Viet Nam, said: “The 2016 PAPI results paint a mixed picture. On the one hand, there has been steady improvement in the performance of public service delivery over the past six years. However, most provinces can do more to improve the competence and attitude of civil servants and public employees, and enhance the transparency, responsiveness, and accountability of their institutions.

    Of the six ‘dimensions’ measured in 2016, the greatest gain was seen in public service delivery, with 35 provinces improving their scores in 2016 compared to 2011. In particular, citizen perceptions of public health quality surged due to a jump in the proportion of citizens with health insurance, from 62% in 2015 to 73% in 2016. There was also a significant rise in the reported quality of free child health care, with 32% saying that the service for children under 6 years of age was “excellent” compared to 23% in 2015. Citizens rated the quality of public hospitals highly on average, though there was a wide range in provincial scores, from 8.16 in Soc Trang to 1.9 in Gia Lai on the index’s 1-10 scale. The scores for total quality of primary schools also improved in 2016 by about 5%.

    However, the trend of declining provincial performance in control of corruption in the public sector continued in 2016, with noticeable spikes in the numbers of respondents saying citizens had to pay bribes for state employment, for land use right certificates, and for teachers to pay sufficient attention to their children in public primary schools. For example, approximately 54% of respondents felt that bribes were needed in order to get a government job, up from 51% in 2015 and 46% in 2011. Reported cases of public officials diverting state funds at the local levels also increased. On a more positive note, fewer respondents in 2016 said bribery was needed to access public health care at the district level.

    In response to the question about what citizens believe are the most important issues facing the country, poverty and hunger remained the top issue. However, 2016 witnessed a 10% increase compared to 2015 in the number of respondents saying the environment represented the issue of greatest concern. This is likely related to the widespread reporting of the fish death crisis in the Central Coast from April 2016 onwards, though the survey also reveals concerns about increasing air and water pollution in many parts of the country. More than 67% of surveyed citizens reported that water quality has deteriorated in the past three years, and 36% reported a decline in air quality. Jobs and employment, economic growth, the East Sea dispute, corruption, and roads were also identified as important issues.

    Citizens reported significant weaknesses with political participation at local levels. Although voter turnout for National Assembly elections, as reported by respondents, increased by 2% (to 69%) compared to the most recent elections in 2011, the turnout for People’s Council members fell by the same amount.  One striking finding is that while 65% of respondents were invited to meetings with commune People’s Council delegates in 2016 and 30% attended, only 47% were invited and 17% attended similar meetings for provincial-level delegates. The results show that party members, members of political, social, professional, and mass organisations, and males are most likely to attend these pre-election meetings with candidates, while women not in the party or these organizations are much less likely to attend.

    Citizens reported overall performance in vertical accountability is still limited.  In 2016, about 22% of respondents across the country said they met village heads to discuss a problem with their family members, neighbours, or local authorities, an increase of about 3% from 2015. The proportions ranged from 4% in Thai Binh to 51% in Quang Nam. For those who met with village heads, about 85% rated the meeting as successful. The numbers of citizens seeking support from commune officials and elected representatives or higher were much lower.

    Results also show good progress made by all provinces in public administrative procedures. There was general satisfaction with application procedures for construction permits and personal documents in 2016. Application procedures for LURCs were rated the poorest. The PAPI findings also reveal a wide gender gap in land use signatures: nationwide 13% more men have their names on land use rights certificates than women, and in rural areas the difference is nearly 19%. This is almost entirely due to married women not signing the certificates.

    The downward trend in land seizures continued: about 6.8% of the respondents reported having land taken in 2016, indicating that land seizures remained at the same general levels as in 2015 (7.4%) and 2014 (5.7%), far less than the average of 9% for each year prior to passage of the 2013 revised Land Law.

    Finally, the 2016 PAPI Report looks at overall provincial performance. Among the best performers are the Northeast provinces of Phu Tho, Hai Duong, Bac Ninh, Bac Giang, Nam Dinh, Thai Binh, Hung Yen, and Ninh Binh; the Central Coast provinces of Ha Tinh, Da Nang, Quang Binh, Quang Tri, and Binh Dinh, and the Mekong Delta provinces of Can Tho, Ben Tre, and Dong Thap. Nam Dinh, Ha Tinh, Quang Tri, and Da Nang have maintained their overall best performance status for six years in a row. At the other end of the 2016 performance spectrum are northern-most and southern-most provinces like Yen Bai, Lang Son, Cao Bang, Ha Giang, Lai Chau, Ca Mau, Bac Lieu, Tra Vinh, and Kien Giang. Binh Duong continued to see a severe decline for the second year in a row.

    We hope that with the 2016 PAPI data and evidence from PAPI surveys over the next five years, the Government of Viet Nam can better oversee how it moves towards ‘the government that facilitates development and serves its People,’” said Dr. Dang Ngoc Dinh, Director of the Centre for Community Support and Development Studies (CECODES).



    Notes for editors:

    The Viet Nam Provincial Governance and Public Administration Performance Index (PAPI) is a policy monitoring tool that reflects citizen experiences with central to local governments in performing their governance, public administration and public service delivery functions. PAPI measures six dimensions: participation at local levels, transparency, vertical accountability, control of corruption, public administrative procedures and public service delivery. The survey has been implemented nationwide each year since 2011.

    PAPI is a collaboration between the Centre for Community Support and Development Studies (CECODES), the Centre for Research and Training of the Viet Nam Fatherland Front (VFF-CRT) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The PAPI initiative has been co-financed by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and UNDP since 2011. The full 2016 PAPI Report and more in-depth analysis can be accessed at:

    For more information, contact:

    Nguyen Viet Lan
    UN Communications Team
    Tel: Tel: (84 4) 38 500 158
    Mob: (+84) 91 4436 769
    Dang Hoang Giang
    #1510, JSC 34 Building, Lane 164, Khuất Duy Tiến,
    Thanh Xuân, Hà Nội Tel: (04) 22 250 618

    #PAPIvn          #PAPI2016

    Media Coverage of 2016 PAPI Report Launch and Findings 

    Clips on Key Findings from PAPI 2016 and the 2016 PAPI Launch

    Photos of the 2016 PAPI Launch Event

  • 13/04/2016

    MEDIA RELEASE: Results from 2015 PAPI nationwide survey show insignificant improvements in provincial governance performance across the country


    Ha Noi, 12 April 2016 – Findings from the 2015 PAPI Report, released today, show declines at the national level in five out of the six governance dimensions the survey measures. Almost 14,000 randomly selected citizens nationwide were interviewed for the 2015 Provincial Governance and Public Administration Performance Index (PAPI), which assesses citizen experiences with national and sub-national government performance in governance, public administration and public service delivery.

    Out of the six dimensions, the most substantial drop was in the transparency index, which fell by more than seven percent. This decline is partly because of less public awareness of local lists of poor households and less confidence in the accuracy of the information provided. For example, almost half (46%) of those surveyed believe that truly poor households are not included in the lists. In 2015 there was also less publicity about local land-use plans and land price frames, and fewer opportunities for citizens to comment on these plans.

    Speaking at the launch of the report, Pratibha Mehta, UN Resident Coordinator, said: “With the National Assembly and People’s Councils elections taking place next month, the report provides an effective tool for the new administration to assess governance and public administration
    reforms over the last five years and benchmark future performance.

    The corruption dimension also witnessed a drop, decreasing by three percent in 2015. Respondents express more concern about corruption in the public sector and in public service delivery and are more worried about corruption and nepotism in public sector employment. In addition, citizens are less confident about the government’s willingness to control corruption, with just 37% saying that their local government is serious about fighting corruption.

    Furthermore, compared to 2014 there has been a noticeable spike in bribes paid for land use rights certificates. The 2015 PAPI Report finds that the estimated number of respondents who paid bribes to get a land use rights certificate increased to more than 44% in 2015, up from 24% in 2014.

    There were also significant declines in the participation at local levels and vertical accountability dimensions. In terms of village elections, for example, overall these do not seem to be competitive. In many villages there are not two or more candidates to choose between and local authorities often suggest candidates. As part of vertical accountability, the interaction between citizens and local authorities is measured. Over the past five years, this interaction has been irregular. While slightly more citizens in 2015 contacted their village head (20%) or commune official (14%), the effectiveness of this interaction is lower than in previous years.

    The public administrative procedures dimension also saw a slight decrease. Of the four public administrative services measured, the quality of services related to land use rights certificates has scored the lowest every year since 2011. More than 22% of those surveyed, for instance, said they had to wait for more than 100 days to get the land use rights paperwork they requested, rather than the 30 days mandated by law.

    Only in the public service delivery dimension have scores increased, albeit modestly. Yet respondents are still concerned about the quality of district hospitals and are also unhappy with the quality of public primary education.

    The 2015 PAPI survey featured a new question on what respondents believe are the three most important issues facing the country. Poverty and hunger was identified as the most important issue, with 18% saying this is the most pressing concern. Jobs and employment, roads, corruption and law and order were also identified as important issues.

    The survey also looked at citizens’ opportunities for political participation. In terms of participation in elections, the survey shows that gender, ethnicity, mass organization membership and education all influence voter participation. Women, ethnic minorities, those who are less educated and those who are not members of mass organizations are in general less likely to vote.

    In terms of participation in consultations on proposed legislation, individual factors determine who participates in these. Party membership is the most important factor, while mass organization membership and education levels also matter to some extent. Party members with a high school degree or more have a 35% chance of being asked to contribute to a law, while party members without a degree have only an 18% chance. On the other hand, respondents not affiliated with the party or a mass organization and with no degree have a less than one percent probability of taking part in legislative consultations.

    Finally, the 2015 PAPI Report looks at provincial performance from 2011-2015 across the six dimensions. Seven provinces have substantially improved their performance scores over the last five years, while 13 provinces have witnessed significant drops. Five provinces (Nam Dinh, Ha Tinh, Quang Tri, Da Nang and Long An) have been in the top performing group in overall provincial performance every year since 2011.

    In general, better performing provinces are found in the north-eastern, central and south-eastern regions. The poorest performing ones are along the northern border area and in the south-central and Central Highlands regions. This pattern has been consistent since 2011.

    “We hope the nation-wide survey results help the 2016-2021 administration benchmark future performance,” said Dr. Dang Ngoc Dinh, Director of the Centre for Community Support and Development Studies (CECODES)./.

    Press Release in PDF

    Photos of the 2015 PAPI Launch

    2015 PAPI Launch – Media Clipping

    • VNExpress – April 12 Link
    • VTV1 Prime Time In The News (19 Hour, from minute 39:25) – April 12 Link

    See More At:

  • 14/04/2015

    JOINT MEDIA RELEASE: PAPI surveys reveal differences in citizen experiences within provinces

    Reforms in governance at slow pace: latest survey

    Photo: © Shutterstock/ UNDP Viet Nam

    Results from nationwide survey show insignificant improvements in governance and public services across all provinces

    Ha Noi, 14 April 2015 – The 2014 PAPI Report released today shows that over the past four years there have only been insignificant improvements in the six governance dimensions that the survey measures.

    Out of the six dimensions, the one that has dropped the most is Participation at Local Levels, where three out of four sub-dimensions declined in scores. For example, village head elections are largely symbolic, with practices such as having fewer than two candidates to choose from and candidates being suggested by the authorities becoming common.

    The Provincial Governance and Public Administration Performance Index (PAPI) is a policy monitoring tool that provides data on citizens’ experience with governance, public administration and public services at the national and provincial level. For the 2014 PAPI survey, nearly 14,000 randomly selected citizens nationwide were interviewed.

    “By providing evidence of citizen experiences, PAPI and the data it generates is seen as a mirror that reflects how local governments perform,” said UN Resident Coordinator in Viet Nam Dr Pratibha Mehta. “The ultimate aim of PAPI is for this evidence to be used to fix problematic areas and ensure good governance and quality services for all citizens – thereby improving the reflection provinces see in the mirror.”

    In 2014, the dimensions on Transparency and Vertical Accountability saw insignificant improvements. For example, on average only eight out of 100 people know about, have read and trust publicized notices about their commune’s budget.

    The Public Administrative Procedures dimension also displayed little improvement in overall levels of citizen satisfaction. The law specifies that land use right procedures should take maximum 30 days. However, a third (34 per cent) of applicants had to wait 100 days to get their paperwork, and 8 per cent had to wait between 100 to 720 days for the final result.

    In Public Service Delivery there have been slight improvements in the quality of basic infrastructure and law and order. However, satisfaction levels with the quality of public district hospitals have fallen. Meanwhile, public primary education scores the lowest among the four public services measured. Poor quality teaching, bribery and irregular feedback from schools are the three key challenges that citizens are concerned about.

    Finally, respondents also noted little improvement in the Control of Corruption dimension. The biggest shift was in the increased number of respondents agreeing that corruption and bribery are of concern in various areas of provincial public service delivery. For example, within state employment nearly half of respondents at least partially agree that bribes are necessary in order to get a job in the public sector.

    The survey also asked respondents about their experience with bribery in order to obtain services in hospitals and primary schools. An estimated 12 per cent had to pay a bribe for hospital services, while 30 per cent of respondents with children in primary school had to pay bribes. These numbers have increased since 2012, when 10 per cent had to pay a bribe for hospital services and 12 per cent for primary education.

    For the 2014 PAPI survey new questions about land transparency and compensation were added. Amendment to Land Law took effect in July 2014, before PAPI 2014 survey started. So data collected can serve as baselines for monitoring the law implementation.

    The data shows that far fewer respondents reported having land seized than in previous years, with five per cent reporting their own family or a neighbor had land taken. Those losing land continue to be concentrated in the Northwest region, while citizens in the Mekong River Delta, Southeast and South Central regions reported low levels of land seizures.

    In terms of compensation, the majority of those reporting that they or their relatives had land seized said they received monetary compensation. However, more than one fifth still reported that they received no compensation at all. At the same time, only 36 per cent of those who had their land taken in the past year said they received fair compensation.

    Similar to previous years, there is wide variation in PAPI scores within provinces, implying significant differences in provincial governance equality. For example, Vinh Long, Long An and Binh Duong provinces seem to provide high quality governance and public services to nearly all of their citizens, while Cao Bang, Ninh Thuan, Dien Bien and Quang Nai provide low governance quality and public services and citizens there experience high inequality…

    2014 PAPI Launch – Media Clipping

    See More At:

  • 14/04/2015

    Tóm tắt thông tin về Chỉ số PAPI 2014

  • 02/04/2014

    JOINT MEDIA RELEASE: PAPI surveys reveal differences in citizen experiences within provinces

    Vulnerable groups experience poorer governance performance (excerpts from the Joint Press Release)

    Ha Noi (2 April 2014) – The results of the 2013 nationwide local governance survey launched today reveals that women, the poor, ethnic minorities and those without governance connections are less satisfied than fellow citizens with the quality of local governance, even within the same district or village.

    Initiated in 2009, the Provincial Governance and Public Administration Performance Index (PAPI) is the largest governance survey of citizens in Viet Nam. Over the past five years, nearly 50,000 citizens have been engaged on their direct experiences of provincial and local authorities’ governance and public administration performance.

    The 2013 PAPI report has broken new ground by digging deeper into differences in governance and public administration quality experienced by different groups of people within provinces. This under-explored national trend reveals that 73 percent of the variation in PAPI scores is accounted for by differences between citizens within individual villages, with some citizens enjoying a highly efficient ‘elite’ service in contrast to others ranking their experience as extremely poor.

    ‘Control of Corruption in the Public Sector’ is the dimension where citizens experience the highest inequality each year, while ‘Public Administrative Procedures’ and ‘Public Service Delivery’ demonstrate the lowest inequality. Overall, in some provinces there is very little difference between citizens within the same locality, but in others the divergence is severe. In 2013 the central city of Da Nang and southern provinces of Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Long An and Vinh Long stand out for high overall governance and little disparity in citizens’ experiences.

    According to PAPI 2013, citizens’ five biggest concerns are environmental pollution, traffic accidents, drug abuse, food hygiene and corruption. The survey also underlines the need to enhance citizens’ awareness of grassroots democratic rights and create opportunities to participate effectively in political activities and policy making.

    Media Coverage of the 2013 PAPI Launch and Findings
    (UN Communications Consolidates Coverage of the 2013 PAPI Launch and Findings, 2-3 April 2014)

    Printed Newspapers

    Viet Nam News p1&4 – April 3
    Tuoi Tre p7 – Youth – April 3
    Thoi Bao Kinh Doanh p1 – Times Business – April 3
    Tien Phong p4 – Vanguard – April 3
    Sai Gon Giai Phong p7- Sai Gon Liberation – April 3
    Thoi Bao Kinh Te Viet Nam p6 – Viet Nam Economic Times – April 3
    Nhan Dan p3 – People’s Daily – April 3
    Phap Luat & Xa Hoi p7 – Law & Society – April 3
    Ha Noi Moi p3 – New Ha Noi – April 3
    Dai Doan Ket p3 – Great Unity – April 3
    Nong Thon Ngay Nay p2 – Countryside Today – April 3

    Online Newspapers/ News Wires

    3 April 2014

    2 April 2014

  • 06/12/2013

    Ciudadanos exigentes hacen los servicios públicos mejores [Demanding citizens make better public services]

    El Indice de Desempeño de la Gobernabilidad y Administración Pública Provincial en Vietnam PAPI por sus siglas en inglés) es un esfuerzo pionero de incorporar las experiencias ciudadanas sobre cómo mejorar la gobernabilidad en un país unipartidista. El PAPI es un proceso pionero que ayuda a construir ciudadanías activas. Igualmente es pionero debido a que da voz a los ciudadanos para que puedan valorar sus experiencias con la gobernabilidad y los servicios públicos (ver nota en página 6). Es el ejercicio más extenso de este tipo en medir la gobernabilidad desde las interacciones de los ciudadanos con las autoridades gubernamentales en los diferentes niveles, incluyendo temas de participación transparencia rendición de cuentas control de la corrupción procedimientos administrativos servicios públicos. El mismo se implementa en un contexto de crecientes demandas de participación de los ciudadanos en los asuntos del gobierno.

  • 21/11/2013

    Publishing The Second Annual Report of the Viet Nam Provincial Governance and Public Administration Performance Index (PAPI) 2012

    Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) – Mekong Region Website • 31 July 2013

    View external link   

  • 30/09/2013

    Let’s talk about stopping corruption

    [Transparency International’s 2013 Global Corruption Barometer (GCB)] echoes the findings of the latest Governance and Public Administration Performance Index (PAPI) study and the 2012 survey of citizens’, firms’ and officials’ views of corruption by the Government Inspectorate and the World Bank. These results are not to be taken lightly.

  • 30/09/2013

    PAPI rankings reviewed

    View external link   

  • 25/09/2013

    To become state officers, relations with “officials” a must, survey

    View external link   

  • 25/09/2013

    Da Nang ranked 2nd in Viet Nam Provincial Governance and Public Administration Performance Index 2012

    View external link   

  • 24/08/2013

    PAPI supports elective agencies’ monitoring capacity

    View external link   

  • 09/08/2013

    Governance and Public Administration Performance in Vietnam: A view from citizens


  • 02/08/2013

    Survey gives citizens unique opportunity to voice their concerns with governance and public administration

    View external link   

  • 20/07/2013

    News Broadcast about PAPI 2012 Launch on the Viet Nam Television at 12:00PM, 14 May 2013 from the minute of 10:32 to the minute of 14:27

    View external link   

  • 18/07/2013

    News Clipping about PAPI 2012 Launch and key PAPI 2012 findings as of 20/05/2013

    More updates on news and articles about PAPI 2012 available at and


  • 15/07/2013

    The Media Release about PAPI 2012 Launch


  • 13/07/2013

    Key facts about PAPI 2012 Findings


  • 13/07/2013

    Speech by the UN Vietnam Resident Coordinator

    Speech by the President of the Ho Chi Minh National Accademy for Politics and Public Administration Download
    Speech by the General Director of the Centre for Research and Training of the Viet Nam Fatherland Front Download


  • 11/07/2013

    People need a voice in reform, say experts

    On Vietnam News on 7 January 2013 and VietNamNet (English Edition) on 23 January 2013

  • 11/07/2013

    Jury out as Da Nang’s populist leader takes on ‘tough’ anti-corruption task Vietweek [Thanh Nien Online – English Edition]

    “The most recent Governance and Public Administration Performance Index (PAPI) found that less than a quarter of Vietnamese citizens think connections are not important to get a job in the public sector. A full 50 percent thought otherwise. PAPI studies also suggest that bribes are paid for government jobs.”

    View external link   

  • 05/07/2013

    Corruption is also measured in the Viet Nam Provincial Governance and Public Administration Performance Index (PAPI). Data from the 2011 survey shows about a third of those surveyed agree that bribes are required to receive medical care and to get a job in the public sector. One fifth find that bribes are needed to apply for a land use right certificate, 17 percent that bribes need to be paid in order for children to receive better treatment in schools, and 16 percent that they are needed to apply for construction permits.
    The PAPI survey also highlights that there are large differences between regions and provinces in terms of their ability to prevent corruption, and it shows the need to further strengthen the enforcement system across the country and in all regions.”

  • 04/07/2013

    Vietnam Land Law revision should improve fairness, transparency – analysts

    View external link   

  • 03/07/2013

    Building Active Citizenship and Accountability in Asia: case studies from Vietnam and India

    Duncan Green, Strategic Adviser for Oxfam GB and Author of “From Poverty to Power”. Also posted on Blogs.WorldBank.Org

    View external link   

  • 03/07/2013

    Presentation on PAPI at Asia Development Dialogue “Development Solution Series Forum: Active citizenship: Enhancing Social Accountability and Challenging Inequity”, Bangkok, Thailand

    Link for info. about the Speaker • Link for downloading case studies including PAPI (pp. 20-26)

  • 03/07/2013

    Vietnam: Who pays the doctor?

    View external link   

  • 03/07/2013

    Giving voice to 13,000 citizens: A unique surveys in Viet Nam asks citizens about their experience of governance and public administration

    View external link    Download   

  • 03/07/2013

    World Bank Seminar in Washington DC: Innovation in Public Sector: The Experience of the Governance and Public Administration Performance Index (PAPI) in Vietnam. Chair: Marcelo Giugale, Sector Director, Africa PREM, World Bank. Speaker Jairo Acuna-Alfaro, Policy Advisor, UNDP

    View external link   

  • 03/07/2013

    Petty Bribery Grows Unbridled


  • 02/07/2013

    Petty graft pervades society


  • 02/07/2013

    Press release of the PAPI 2011 launch


  • 02/07/2013

    Land management – Fact sheet with PAPI 2011 data • Download
    Public health care – Fact sheet with PAPI 2011 data • Download
    Monitoring local level public sector performance – Fact sheet with PAPI 2011 data • Download
    Control of corruption – Fact sheet with PAPI 2011 data • Download

  • 02/07/2013

    UNDP launches Viet Nam Human Development Report 2011 on Social Services

    The report uses PAPI data to analyze the relationship between governance and human development at the provincial level in Viet Nam (see in particular chapter 6, pages 121-126) See fact sheet


  • 28/06/2013

    More transparency needed for local governments

    A Monthly publication of the Vietnam News Agency


  • 25/06/2013

    News clippings of PAPI 2010 launch


  • 24/06/2013

    Vietnam: New online tool will allow greater participation in assessing public administration

    External Link   

  • 21/06/2013

    Vietnam: Launching a Public Administration Performance Index at the Provincial Level

    External Link   

  • 08/06/2016

    Hội thảo về nâng cao chỉ số hiệu quả quản trị hành chính công cấp tỉnh [khu vực Duyên hải Nam Trung Bộ và Tây Nguyên]

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